A detailed review of forensic facial reconstruction techniques

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Facial reconstruction is an effective forensic technique that can help recreate a victim’s facial appearance from the skull. It is typically used to assist law enforcement agencies to identify missing deceased persons. Reconstruction techniques are usually based on the relationship between the underlying hard tissues, such as bone structure, and soft tissues such as the facial muscles and facial features. Facial reconstruction can be a feasible alternative to identify the remains from a decomposed, mutilated, or skeletonised corpse. It is important to remember that although the outcomes are empirical in nature, the technique has been applied widely in many situations. Recent advancements in technology and computer-based techniques have increased the accuracy and validity of this forensic discipline. We consider the most commonly used facial reconstruction techniques in this paper, with a detailed description of manual 3D techniques.

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