Recommended Reading

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Artefacts are postmortem findings that often complicate an investigation into death. The police and relatives may be bewildered by them, and forensic pathologists need to be well versed with the intricacies that they can pose. We studied postmortem records over a year and report three cases of ant bite artefacts which led the relatives and the police to suspect the manner of death. A thorough postmortem examination endorsed the findings as ant bite artefacts and so correctly advised the police investigation.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
An occupational physician is employed to be responsible for the overall assessment of workers’ health risks and all work-related pathological situations which creates an unusual doctor–patient relationship. The duties of the occupational physician are also very limited as is their professional responsibility. However, the boundaries of the occupational physician’s duties and responsibilities are not always clear. The purpose of this article is to answer the following question: Does the occupational doctor have a duty to carry out general clinical evaluations (not work-related) of the patient?

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
IntroductionSplenic artery aneurysm is a rare form of vascular pathology that carries a high risk of mortality once it gets ruptured. It has a prevalence of 1% and occurs due to thinning and dilatation of the arterial wall.CaseWe describe a case of a 35-year-old policeman who died suddenly. At medico-legal autopsy, intraperitoneal clotted blood about 1000 g and liquid blood about 3000 ml were seen. On further exploration, ruptured splenic artery aneurysm about 2.0 cm in diameter became visible near the hilum.ConclusionRare cases typically present as sudden and unexpected death with intraperitoneal bleed and may be confused with blunt trauma abdomen. Therefore, splenic artery aneurysm is an appropriate differential diagnosis for sudden deaths and intraperitoneal bleeding, respectively.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Excessive use of online technology brings with it the risk of problematic digital behaviour like over-use of social media, online gambling, webinar fatigue, digital burnout, and in extreme cases doom surfing, and doom scrolling. In addition, digital failures can cause significant mental health distress to people, and unhealthy interactions on social media can also lead to deviant behaviour such as cyber bullying and cybercrime. This paper discusses the various vulnerabilities an individual is predisposed to on the internet, and highlights the importance of “Digital Resilience”. Digital resilience is a new concept which refers to the learning, recovery, and bouncing back process after having negative or adverse experiences online. A comprehensive and holistic model to introduce Digital Resilience to everyone through a multitier approach that includes Individual, Societal, and Community intervention is formulated and elaborated. The importance of addressing these concerns from both a psychological and legal perspective is also discussed.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
The Nepalese constitution guarantees equal rights to both men and women regardless of caste, race, or ethnicity. However, the centuries-old superstitious practice of caste-based hierarchy in the Hindu community and discrimination against people of lower caste are still prevalent. Furthermore, witchcraft allegations are also not uncommon. Both these practices are derogatory and humiliating and violate human rights, and the law can penalise them in both instances. Due to the intersection of gender and caste, women often face multiple forms of discrimination and violence as the patriarchal society considers them a weaker gender. The present study aimed to see the trend of crimes upon women reported by Nepal Police in the form of witchcraft allegations and untouchability between the fiscal years 2013/14 and 2019/20.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Worldwide advances in computer techniques are not yet recognised in the practice of forensic medicine. A promising application is their use in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the crime scene. This study analyses this technique in a homicide by firearm. Queries regarding the direction and number of shots, position of the victim inside the car when shot at and presence of the accused at the crime scene were answered by a scientific model. Similar reconstruction of the scene, nailing the accused in a heinous crime, has not previously been reported as a study or a case. The paper anticipates impetus to the growth of literature in criminology and forensic sciences. It will also expedite the delivery of justice based on scientific evidence in controversial causes of death.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Respiratory tract infections play a considerable pathogenetic role in many cases of sudden infant death (SID). Frequently, clinicians encounter difficulties in diagnosing the disease because of its often unspecific clinical and radiological presentation. We report three cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), involving two males and one female admitted to hospital due to mild respiratory distress. In all three cases, complete post-mortem investigations were successful in uncovering interstitial lung disease as the cause of death. These cases highlight the key role of infection-related interstitial lung diseases in the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained SUDI/SIDS and the diagnostic difficulties due to the variable clinical and histological pattern, thereby explaining the importance of performing complete post-mortem investigations whenever an infant dies suddenly and unexpectedly.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Criminal justice liaison and diversion services identify people with mental health needs and ensure they receive appropriate support. We describe a 25-year period of one such service that deals with a population of 864,540 in South East London that was set up in 1991. We used data from three time periods. A diagnosis of a mental illness was recorded in 70.0–80.3% of court liaison and diversion referrals. The proportion receiving a hospital order declined from 15.4% in 1991/1992 to 1.1% in 2015/2016; 54/199 (27.1%) of referrals to the police liaison and diversion service were detained in hospital. Although the service is designed to support any individual with a mental health issue, these results suggest that it has dealt mainly with people who have severe mental illness. Further research is required to understand how best to benefit a wider range of people with mental health issues who attend the lower (Magistrates’) courts, and whether screening for mental disorders can be applied in liaison and diversion settings to aid the implementation of national policy. We also need to understand how disposal decisions are made, and which are most effective.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Male dominance in a patriarchal society can be attributed to the phallus which symbolises masculinity, power and vigour. Any injury to the penis is therefore, injury to manhood. We report a rare case from Nepal where an elderly man who allegedly committed a sexual offence suffered a malicious injury to his penis in retaliation by his family.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Lightning is the discharge of an electric charge forming in the atmosphere between the earth and clouds which travels downward in a branching pattern. It is estimated that there are some 1800 active thunderstorms at any given moment. Lightning may injure or kill a person by a direct strike, a side-flash or conduction through another object. Agricultural workers are at risk in developing and underdeveloped countries, as are those engaging in sporting activities elsewhere. Fatalities resulting from lightning strikes may not show specific symptoms at autopsy, but there may be symptoms of burns on clothes and body and fernlike marks specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. Other signs are acute kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmias and deaths, and while internal organs may show oedema, congestion, etc, this is not in itself sufficient to establish causation. When diagnosing death from a lightning strike, it is essential to examine the deceased’s clothes, their external body and carry out a crime scene investigation. We report a series of three cases of death from a lightning strike in previously healthy men engaged in their daily activities.

Read More on Journal Site...