Tag: forensic

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Facial reconstruction is an effective forensic technique that can help recreate a victim’s facial appearance from the skull. It is typically used to assist law enforcement agencies to identify missing deceased persons. Reconstruction techniques are usually based on the relationship between the underlying hard tissues, such as bone structure, and soft tissues such as the facial muscles and facial features. Facial reconstruction can be a feasible alternative to identify the remains from a decomposed, mutilated, or skeletonised corpse. It is important to remember that although the outcomes are empirical in nature, the technique has been applied widely in many situations. Recent advancements in technology and computer-based techniques have increased the accuracy and validity of this forensic discipline. We consider the most commonly used facial reconstruction techniques in this paper, with a detailed description of manual 3D techniques.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Criminal justice in Nepal is stringent when it deals with cases of sexual offence. The law protects the victims’ rights and fast tracks trials. Notwithstanding, there has been an increase in the number of reported cases recently. This study highlights the increasing number of reported rape and attempted rape cases in Nepal over the past 20 years and discusses the public health measures aimed at preventing these crimes.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
National Health Service employers are subject to legal duties to protect the health and safety of their employees and third parties who come into contact with their staff. In order to discharge these duties, National Health Service employers must implement a range of protective measures to mitigate risk. One such measure is to require staff to wear personal protective equipment, including respiratory protective equipment, in certain circumstances. This is of particular importance during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the presence of facial hair has a negative impact on the effectiveness of respiratory protective equipment. This article discusses whether a requirement to be clean shaven could amount to discrimination under the Equality Act 2010.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Transnational commercial surrogacy is a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents in an attempt to seek surrogates in other countries. Most intended parents are from developed countries and seek their surrogates from developing countries, predominantly from South and Southeast Asia. This arrangement led to the establishment of surrogacy businesses in South and Southeast Asia, in countries such as India and Thailand. Subsequently, the business was banned in these countries, which led to a trend of moving it to neighbouring countries where there were no regulations or restrictions. This paper maps the movement of the industry and calls for attention to re-consider or re-frame commercial surrogacy in an international framework.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
The internet provides a platform for expression of a new self that a user finds it difficult to achieve in the real world. This quality mediates disinhibited or regressive expression of self. The online disinhibited expression is also found to have to a direct correlation with a person’s self-concept, including their self-worth and self-control, which also contributes to lowering their social control through the social inadequacies they perceive themselves to have. The low self-control is being associated with engagement in bullying or cybercrime through online modalities. The report implicates for evolving intervention to manage cybercrimes from a psychological and legal perspective.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
There is inadequate research and study into the use of garlic and other herbal medicine in clinical practice; accordingly, the general population should be cautious when using such complementary and herbal treatments. We report a case which highlights the potential complications following the application of garlic-related naturopathic remedies mostly on skin burns.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Recent reports suggest that the use of an outpatient-based procedure (pneumatic retinopexy, PR) for retinal detachment repair should be encouraged within the UK, especially in light of Covid-19 and possible restrictions/competing demands on access to operating theatres. It is therefore essential that patients receive comprehensive information about the risks and benefits of this approach compared with a formal surgical repair either by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and/or scleral buckling (SB). We report a retrospective case series of retinal detachments (RD) satisfying the strict selection criteria for PR but who were managed with formal surgery. Single-operation success rate for PPV/SB at six months follow-up was 93.8% in our study, higher than published primary success rates for PR (60–80%). When counselling patients for possible PR, the ease, speed and potentially reduced co-morbidity of an outpatient-based procedure needs to be balanced against its significantly higher failure rate in comparison with primary PPV/SB.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Death following accidental suffocation due to overlaying is often overlooked, and still attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). We report a case of sudden infant death following accidental suffocation due to breast overlaying during breastfeeding. We report the death of a two-month-old male baby, without medical history, who was found lifeless wedged under his mother’s breast. The mother subsequently admitted that she had fallen asleep while breastfeeding and awoke a few minutes later to find him wedged under her breast and not breathing. External examination of the infant’s body revealed right frontal congestion with reddish-purple colour of the right frontal skin corresponding to where the mother’s breast had overlaid his face with bilateral conjunctival petechiae with no signs of external injury. Internal examination revealed congestion with petechiae marks of the internal side of the right frontal scalp, with moderate congestion and few petechiae marks at the level of the lungs. The histopathological examination showed non-specific passive congestion, with no abnormalities. The cause of death was attributed to accidental suffocation following obstruction of external airways by the mother’s breast during breastfeeding. Accidental asphyxia cases require extensive investigation of the circumstances surrounding death, reconstruction of events, and careful documentation of the findings observed at autopsy with full histological examination which may become relevant in a specific case in later stages of the investigation.

Read More on Journal Site...

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
We analysed the recorded cases of suicides committed other than by hanging in prison in Milan. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 25,512 autopsies performed from 1993 to 2019, selecting all the suicides in prison but our attention was focused solely on cases where an alternative mode to hanging was used. From a total of 97 suicide events in prison, 15 were consistent with the established search criteria: 6 victims died from plastic bag suffocation, 4 by direct inhalation of butane gas, 2 associated plastic bag suffocation to inhalation of butane gas, one committed suicide with an edged weapon, one by self-burning and, finally, one by voluntary ingestion of a food to which he was allergic, with the intent of inducing an anaphylactic shock. Our analysis has shown that the landscape of prison suicides is diverse, not limited solely to hanging. Therefore, it is necessary for the forensic scientific community to raise awareness of potentially unusual suicide methods in prisons and, in the same way, for the Penitentiary Administration to put adequate preventive measures and strategies in place.

Read More on Journal Site...