Tag: medical negligence

Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Sudden death is described as a natural but unexpected death occurring within one hour from the onset of the patient’s final symptoms. Despite cardiac disease being recognised as the cause of death in most people, sudden and unexpected death can also be non-cardiac related. Often a natural but sudden death is not subject to an autopsy, but only to an external examination, and this runs the risk of wrongly attributing the death to a cardiac cause. The present review is a retrospective-observational study which looks into the cases of sudden non-cardiac death recorded in the Genoa District (Italy) from 2014 to 2019 and investigated through complete autopsy examinations. Amongst these cases, 39 (31.5%) were attributable to gastrointestinal diseases, mostly due to the rupture of oesophageal varices; 39 (31.5%) to respiratory diseases, especially pulmonary infections; 31 (25%) to peripheral vascular disease, mostly attributable to pulmonary thromboembolisms or the acute dissection of aneurysms whilst the remaining 15 cases (12%) were attributable to intracranial haemorrhages.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Lightning is the discharge of an electric charge forming in the atmosphere between the earth and clouds which travels downward in a branching pattern. It is estimated that there are some 1800 active thunderstorms at any given moment. Lightning may injure or kill a person by a direct strike, a side-flash or conduction through another object. Agricultural workers are at risk in developing and underdeveloped countries, as are those engaging in sporting activities elsewhere. Fatalities resulting from lightning strikes may not show specific symptoms at autopsy, but there may be symptoms of burns on clothes and body and fernlike marks specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. Other signs are acute kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmias and deaths, and while internal organs may show oedema, congestion, etc, this is not in itself sufficient to establish causation. When diagnosing death from a lightning strike, it is essential to examine the deceased’s clothes, their external body and carry out a crime scene investigation. We report a series of three cases of death from a lightning strike in previously healthy men engaged in their daily activities.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
During the past 10 years, the “Prevention of Violence Against Medicare Persons and Institutions Act” has failed to achieve its object. With the advent of the pandemic, stricter measures were taken and on 22 April 2020, all acts of violence against healthcare personnel confronting the Covid-19 pandemic became “cognizable and non-bailable offences” by means of the Epidemic Diseases (Amendment) Ordinance, a direct statement from the Government of India that there would be zero tolerance for violence against its health care workers. The Amendment aims to fill gaps in the previous law which did not protect healthcare workers against occupational violence at the workplace and at home. The amendment of the Ordinance will have a positive impact on the medical community which is much needed, particularly during the pandemic.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Sodium nitrite is a common household product with a variety of uses such as curing meat, food additive, colouring agent, anti-freezing agent and disinfectant. We report a case of sodium nitrite intoxication for deliberate self-harm and discuss the increasing number of such cases in recent times.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Facial reconstruction is an effective forensic technique that can help recreate a victim’s facial appearance from the skull. It is typically used to assist law enforcement agencies to identify missing deceased persons. Reconstruction techniques are usually based on the relationship between the underlying hard tissues, such as bone structure, and soft tissues such as the facial muscles and facial features. Facial reconstruction can be a feasible alternative to identify the remains from a decomposed, mutilated, or skeletonised corpse. It is important to remember that although the outcomes are empirical in nature, the technique has been applied widely in many situations. Recent advancements in technology and computer-based techniques have increased the accuracy and validity of this forensic discipline. We consider the most commonly used facial reconstruction techniques in this paper, with a detailed description of manual 3D techniques.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Criminal justice in Nepal is stringent when it deals with cases of sexual offence. The law protects the victims’ rights and fast tracks trials. Notwithstanding, there has been an increase in the number of reported cases recently. This study highlights the increasing number of reported rape and attempted rape cases in Nepal over the past 20 years and discusses the public health measures aimed at preventing these crimes.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
National Health Service employers are subject to legal duties to protect the health and safety of their employees and third parties who come into contact with their staff. In order to discharge these duties, National Health Service employers must implement a range of protective measures to mitigate risk. One such measure is to require staff to wear personal protective equipment, including respiratory protective equipment, in certain circumstances. This is of particular importance during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the presence of facial hair has a negative impact on the effectiveness of respiratory protective equipment. This article discusses whether a requirement to be clean shaven could amount to discrimination under the Equality Act 2010.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
Transnational commercial surrogacy is a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents in an attempt to seek surrogates in other countries. Most intended parents are from developed countries and seek their surrogates from developing countries, predominantly from South and Southeast Asia. This arrangement led to the establishment of surrogacy businesses in South and Southeast Asia, in countries such as India and Thailand. Subsequently, the business was banned in these countries, which led to a trend of moving it to neighbouring countries where there were no regulations or restrictions. This paper maps the movement of the industry and calls for attention to re-consider or re-frame commercial surrogacy in an international framework.

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Medico-Legal Journal, Ahead of Print.
The internet provides a platform for expression of a new self that a user finds it difficult to achieve in the real world. This quality mediates disinhibited or regressive expression of self. The online disinhibited expression is also found to have to a direct correlation with a person’s self-concept, including their self-worth and self-control, which also contributes to lowering their social control through the social inadequacies they perceive themselves to have. The low self-control is being associated with engagement in bullying or cybercrime through online modalities. The report implicates for evolving intervention to manage cybercrimes from a psychological and legal perspective.

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